"The Assyrians fielded light ranged cavalry as early as the 9th century BCE. The Assyrian archers used a simple short bow, riding their mounts bareback (or atop a blanket or rug) without saddle or stirrup. Their range was short, but quite effective against the lightly-armored infantry of the day. In the Battle of Qarqar (853 BCE), Assyrian King Salmaneser III defeated a coalition of 12 kings (including Ahab of Israel), inflicting 25,000 casualties on the enemy forces. Unfortunately we only have Salmaneser III's word for this, and most historians thing he was a huge liar who heavily inflated enemy casualties in battle."